Evaluation report 2013:1 Complementarity in Finland’s Development Policy and Co-operation: Finland’s Country Programme in Zambia
ISBN 978-952-281-204-9 (pdf)
The case study on complementarity in the country programme in Zambia is part of a broader evaluation of complementarity in Finland’s development policy and co-operation. The case study was limited to an extensive review of documents and limited interviews with Ministry for Foreign Affairs (MFA) staff in Helsinki.
During the period under review (2004-2012), external complementarity in Zambia was mainly driven by country frameworks for aid harmonisation, underpinned by the Paris Declaration, rather than by Finland’s policies and implementation modalities. Finland’s country programme was aligned with the main national plans of the Government of Zambia (GoZ). Collaboration was good with other donors. Finland did not succeed in limiting its country programme to three sectors, plus general budget support, which would have reflected a greater division of labour with other donors.
There was little guidance and oversight by the MFA, how to achieve internal complementarity between different instruments of Finnish cooperation. Complementarity with Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), the Institutional Co-operation Instrument (IKI) regional programmes, and the private sector was limited, as only some projects were specifically designed to support sector programmes.
The evaluation recommends that external complementarity be strengthened by making more use of partner country systems and by reducing the number of sectors and programmes. Internal complementarity could be enhanced by the formulation of common goals and objectives, and by strengthening joint implementation between the country programme and those of NGO co-operation and the IKI instrument. The MFA should also increase permanent staffing for the Zambia Desk in the Department for Africa and the Middle East in the MFA to ensure greater programme efficiency.
Keywords: complementarity, harmonisation, alignment, country programmes, Zambia